Atmospheric emissions

[G4-EN15], [G4-EN16], [G4-EN19] Greenhouse gas emissions by Telecom Italia and the Group consist almost exclusively of carbon dioxide and are due to the use of fossil fuels for heating, transport, electricity generation, purchase of electricity produced by third parties and staff travel (for business trips and commuting between home and work). In addition to these, dispersals of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons (HCFC and HFC) from air conditioning plants are also considered and converted into kg of CO2 equivalent.

For atmospheric emissions as well, use is made of the Global Reporting Initiative - GRI Version 4 - guidelines, which refer to the definitions of the GHG Protocol, distinguishing between direct emissions (Scope 1: use of fossil fuels for transport, heating, power generation), indirect emissions (Scope 2: purchase of electricity for industrial and civil use) and other indirect emissions (Scope 3). Unless otherwise stated, the atmospheric emission figures given in this Report have been calculated based on the updated coefficients made available by the GHG Protocol1.

The following table shows the total CO2 emissions of the Group.

Atmospheric emissions

Group breakdown by Business Unit (%) and % variation
compared to the previous 2 years
CO2 emissions from transportkg 53,048,211 93% 6% 1%
CO2 emissions from heatingkg 30,966,636 100% 0% 0%
Emissions of CO2 equivalents for HCFC/HFC(*) dispersalskg 6,653,780 100% 0% 0%
CO2 emissions from electricity generation by cogenerationkg 60,695,712 100% 0% 0%
CO2 emissions from electricity generation using dieselkg 3,012,587 77% 20% 3%
Total direct emissions of CO2 - under Scope 1 GRIkg 154,376,926 97% 3% 0%
2015 v. 2014 10% 10% (5)% (2)%
2015 v. 2013 (2)% (2)% (9)% 0%
CO2 emissions from purchases of electricity generated by mixed sourceskg   82,266,006   3% 85% 12%
Total indirect emissions of CO2 - under Scope 2 GRIkg 82,266,006 3% 85% 12%
2015 v. 2014 4% (33)% 7% (1)%
2015 v. 2013 (89)% (100)% 81% 37%

(*) The equivalent CO2 emissions of the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) are determined by reference to specific Global Warming Potential (GWP) parameters for the two gases: the index is based on a relative scale that compares the gas considered with an equal mass of carbon dioxide with a GWP of 1. The GWP of HCFC used was 1,780 and that of HFC was 1,300.

Atmospheric emissions

Group breakdown by Business Unit (%) and % variation
compared to the previous 2 years
CO2 emissions from work-home commuting(†) kg 67,271,551 91% 9% 0%
CO2 emissions from air travel(‡) kg 9,967,790 58% 42% 0%
Total of other indirect emissions of CO2 - under Scope 3 GRI kg 77,239,341 87% 13% 0%
2015 v. 2014 0% (1)% 9% (27)%
2015 v. 2013 (4)% (7)% 24% (24)%
Total emissions of CO2 kg 313,882,273 70% 27% 3%
2015 v. 2014 6% 6% 7% (2)%
2015 v. 2013 (69)% (77)% 64% 34%

(†) In determining the impact of home-work commuting, reference is made to statistical data produced on the company’s personnel. The scope taken into consideration has been extended from 2014 to all the Domestic BU while in previous years only the main companies were considered. The emissions were recalculated for a similar scope for 2013 too in order to obtain an accurate comparison.
(‡) Emissions due to air travel were calculated by the study and research centre of American Express (the Travel Agency used by Telecom Italia) supported by DEFRA (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the United Kingdom) based on the number of journeys actually made, subdivided by the duration of each individual journey (short, medium or long).

The table showing emissions of carbon dioxide, particularly those under the GRI Scope2, is strongly and positively influenced, compared to previous years, by the agreement signed for the purchase, in 2014 and 2015, of guarantees of origin which certify the electricity generated by renewable sources. In both years, the agreement related to almost 100% of the electricity used by the Domestic BU.

1 Emissions relating to the consumption of electricity purchased from mixed sources in the Italian market have been calculated by using the coefficient published by the GHG Protocol for 2009 - which considers the national energy mix - equal to 386 grams of CO2/kWh. For Brazil, the average coefficients for 2013, 2014 and 2015 have been used, as calculated and published by the Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation), of approximately 96, 135.5 and 124.4 grams respectively of CO2/kWh.